In 1917 the Russian Revolution took place which is regarded as one of the most explosive political events of this 20th century. This was a violent revolution which marked the end of centuries of Russian regal rule and the Romanov dynasty.
While the period of Russian Revolution, the Bolsheviks, led by leftist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, which destroyed the custom and tradition of the csarist rule and seized power. The Bolsheviks eventually turned to be the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
WHEN WAS THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION?
In 1917, two revolutions occurred in the country Russia, which actually concluded the very long traditional imperial rule and the Russian Revolution is also said to bring a socio-political change in that country and it also led to the formation of the Soviet Union.
The 2 important revolutions took place within a few short months, social unrest in Russia which has been rumbling for decades. In the early 1900s, Russia was amongst the nation and in Europe with the growing minority of poor industrial workers and an immense peasantry.
Mostly the Western Europe defined Russia as an undeveloped or backward society reportedly. The Russian Empire practiced serfdom—a form of feudalism in which landless peasants were forced to serve the land-owning nobility—in the 19th century.
Contradictory this practiced has been already disappeared in from the entire Western Europe by the end of the Middle Ages.
In 1861, the Russian Empire finally abolished serfdom. The emancipation of serfs would influence the events leading up to the Russian Revolution by giving peasants more freedom to organize.
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION OF 1905
Russia industrialized gradually in the United States and in the Western Europe. Whilst in the 20th century, it brought with it huge socio-political changes in the county.
Between 1890 and 1910, for instance, the population ratio in some of the major cities of Russia like Moscow and Petersburg turned to nearly doubled, which consequences in overcrowding and it leads to the destitute living conditions for the Russian industrial workers.
This was like the explosion of the population in the nineteenth century, a harsh growing season due to Russia’s northern climate, and on this period the country witnessed some wars in the consecutive numbers—starting with the Crimean War (1854-1856)—meant recurrent or repeated food shortages in this entire kingdom.
The Russian workers also go for against this monarchy which resulted in some Bloody Sunday massacre of 1905. Hundreds of unarmed protesters were killed and injured by the czar’s troops.
This was a mass execution sparked and glimmered the Russian revolution of 1905, while this period angry workers responded with a series of crippling strikes throughout the nation.
After in 1905, the bloodshed era during the period of Czar Nicholas II promised the formation these representative assemblies in the consecutive order, or Dumas will be work towards the reformation of the nation.
In the month of August 1914, Russia joined the World War I and provided its support of the Serbs to the British friends and their French allies.
The Russia’s involvement in the war anyway testimonies for the devastating for the Russian Empire.
Militarily, imperial Russia actually did not match with the industrialized Germany, and Russian casualties which immense in number post the nation was sustained by any nation in previous wars.
Food and fuel shortages left an impact on the Russia as inflation took place. The economy was hopeless because of this deadly war and it was also expensive.
In 1915, Czar Nicholas left the Russian capital of Petrograd (St. Petersburg) only to take the Russian Army front in their hands (In 1914 the Russians had renamed the imperial city because as the name “St. Petersburg” had sounded like German.)
RASPUTIN AND THE CZARINA
In her husband’s absence, Czarina Alexandra—an unpopular woman of German ancestry—began firing elected officials. During this time, her controversial advisor, Grigory Rasputin, increased his influence over Russian politics and the royal Romanov family.
Russian nobles eager to end Rasputin’s influence murdered him on December 30, 1916. By then, most Russians had lost faith in the failed leadership of the czar. Government corruption was rampant, the Russian economy remained backward and Nicholas repeatedly dissolved the Duma, the toothless Russian parliament established after the 1905 revolution, when it opposed his will.
Moderates soon joined Russian radical elements in calling for an overthrow of the hapless czar.
The February Revolution (known as such because of Russia’s use of the Julian calendar until February 1918) started on 8th March (February 23 on the Julian calendar).
Demonstrators clamoring for bread took to the streets of Petrograd. It will be supported towards the huge crowds of striking industrial workers, the protesters clashed with police and kept protesting and refused to leave the streets.
On 1st March the troops of the Petrograd army garrison arrived to quell the uprising. In some encounters, killing demonstrators, the regiments opened fire, but the protesters kept to the streets as well troops started to waver.
The Duma formed a provisional government on 12th March and after some days Czar Nicholas steps down from the throne, and it marked the end of the Russian Romanov centuries rule.
The leaders of the provisional government, which includes the young Russian lawyer Alexander Kerensky, established a liberal program of some rights which includes equality before the law, freedom of speech and the right of unions to organize and strike. They also said that they will be against of any violent social revolution.
Kerensky continued the Russian war effort, as minister of war even though Russian involvement in World War I was very infamous. This further makes worse Russia’s food supply problems and it consecutively grows as peasants looted farms and food riots took place in the town.
On 6th November on 7th November, 1917 (or October 24 and 25 on the Julian calendar, that is why it is also known as the October Revolution), leftist revolutionaries led by Bolshevik Party leader Vladimir Lenin and it was also reason of the launched of the bloodless coup d’état against the Duma’s provisional government.
The provisional government arrives together in a group of leaders from Russia’s bourgeois capitalist class. Lenin as an alternative called for a Soviet government which will be ruled directly by councils of soldiers, workers, and peasants.
The Bolsheviks and their allies occupied government buildings and some strategic locations in Petrograd, and soon formed a new government with Lenin was head of this government. Lenin became the dictator of the world’s first communist state.
The Russian Revolution and CIVIL WAR
In the late period of 1917, the Civil War took place in Russia post the Bolshevik Revolution. The warring factions were consists of the White and Red Armies.
The White Army symbolize capitalists, a massive group of loosely allied forces, including monarchists which support the supporters of democratic socialism.
While the Red Army fought for the Lenin’s Bolshevik government. In 1923 the Russian Civil War ended with Lenin’s Red Army claiming victory and it established the Soviet Union.
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